Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: A review and Meta-analysis.

Alberto Chiesa and Alessandro Serretti. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. May 2009, 15(5): 593-600.

Results: MBSR showed a nonspecific effect on stress reduction in comparison to an inactive control, both in reducing stress and in enhancing spirituality values, and a possible specific effect compared to an intervention designed to be structurally equivalent to the meditation program. A direct comparison study between MBSR and standard relaxation training found that both treatments were equally able to reduce stress. Furthermore, MBSR was able to reduce ruminative thinking and trait anxiety, as well as to increase empathy and self-compassion.

The Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on Stress, Mindfulness Self-Efficacy, and Positive States of Mind.

Chang V.Y., Palesh O., Caldwell R., Glasgow N., Abramson M., Luskin F., Gill M., Burke A., Koopman C. (2004).  Stress and Health, 20:3, 141-147. doi: 10.1002/smi.1011.

“Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has grown in popularity over the last two decades, showing efficacy for a variety of health issues. In the current study, we examined the effects of an MBSR intervention on pain, positive states of mind, stress, and mindfulness self-efficacy. These measures were collected before and following an 8-week intervention. Post-intervention levels of stress were significantly lower than pre-intervention levels, while mindfulness self-efficacy and positive states of mind were at significantly higher levels. The findings underscore the potential for stress management, awareness and attention training, and positive states of mind using MBSR. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program

Carmody J., Baer R.A.(2008).. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31:1, 23-33.

“Relationships were investigated between home practice of mindfulness meditation exercises and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and psychological well-being in a sample of 174 adults in a clinical Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. This is an 8- session group program for individuals dealing with stress-related problems, illness, anxiety, and chronic pain. Participants completed measures of mindfulness, perceived stress, symptoms, and well-being at pre- and post-MBSR, and monitored their home practice time throughout the intervention. Results showed increases in mindfulness and well-being, and decreases in stress and symptoms, from pre- to post-MBSR. Time spent engaging in home practice of formal meditation exercises (body scan, yoga, sitting meditation) was significantly related to extent of improvement in most facets of mindfulness and several measures of symptoms and well-being. Increases in mindfulness were found to mediate the relationships between formal mindfulness practice and improvements in psychological functioning, suggesting that the practice of mindfulness meditation leads to increases in mindfulness, which in turn leads to symptom reduction and improved well-being.”

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